Foundation of Anthropology
Section I is compulsory, candiates may offer either section II-a or II-b Each section (i.e I & II carries 150 marks)
i. Meaning and scope of Anthropology and its main branches; (1) Social-cultural Anthropology (2) Physical Anthropology (3) Archaeological Anthropology (4) Linguistic Anthropology (5) Applied Anthropology.
ii. Community and Society institutions, group and association, culture and civilization; band and tirbe.
iii. Marriage : The problems of universal definition; incest and prohibited categories; preferential forms of marriage; marriage payments; the family as the corner stone of human society; universality and the family, functions of the family; diverse forms of family nuclear, extended, joint etc. Stability and change in the family.
iv. Kinship : Descent, residence, alliance, kins, terms and kinship behaviour, lineage and clan.
v. Economic Anthropology : Meaning and scope; modes of exchange; barter and ceremonial exchange, reciprocity and redistribution; market and trade.
vi. Political Anthropology : Meaning and scope : the locus and power and the functions of Legitimate authority in different societies. Difference between State and Stateless political systems, Nation building processes in new State, law & justice in simpler societies.
vii. Origins of religions : animism and animatism, difference between religions and magic.
Tolemism and Taboo
viii Field work and filed work traditions in Anthropology.
1. Foundations of theory of organic evolution Lamarckism, Darwinism and the Synthetic theory. Human evolution, biological and cultural dimensions, Micro-evolution.
2. The order Primate. A Comparative study of Primates with special reference to the anthropoid apes and man.
3. Fossil evidence for human evolution. Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus. Australopilkecines, Homoerectus (Pithecanthropines), homosapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens.
4. Genetics definition; The mendelian principles and its application to human population.
5. Racial differentiation of Man and bases of racial classification morphological, serological and genetic. Role of heredity and environment in the formation of races.
6. The effects of nutrition in breeding and hybridization.
1. Technique, method and methodology distinguished.
2. Meaning of evolution biological and socio-cultural, the basic assunptions of 19th century evoutionism. The cmparative method. Contemporary trends in evolutionary studies.
3. Diffusion and diffusionism – American distributionism and historical ethnology of the German speaking ethnologists. The attack on the ‘the’ comparative method by diffusionists and Franz Boss. The natue, purpose and methods of comparison in social cultural anthropology, Redcliffe- Brown, Egggan, Oscar Lewis and Sarana.Boss. The natue, purpose and methods of comparison in social cultural anthropology, Redcliffe- Brown, Egggan, Oscar Lewis and Sarana.4. Patterns, basic personality construct and model personlaity. The relevance of anthropological approach to national character studies. Recent trends in psychological anthropology.5. Function and cause, Malinowski’s contribution to functionalism in social anthropology. Function and structure Redcliff-Brown, Fifth, Fortes and Nadel.6. Structuralism in linguistics and in social anthropology Levi-Strauus and Leach in viewing social structure as a model the structuralist method in the study of myth. New Ethnography and formal semantic analysis.7. Norms and Values. Values as a category of anthropological description. Values of anthropologist and anthropology as a source of values. Cultural relativism and the issue of universal values.8. Social anthropology and history, Scientific and humanistic studies distinguished. A critical examination of the plea for the unity of method of the natural and social sciences. The nature and logic of anthropological field work method and its autonomy.
Indian AnthropologyPaper – II Palaeolithic, Meslithic, Neolithic, Protonistoric (Indus civilization) dimensions of Indian Culture. Distribution and racial and linguistic elements in Indian population. The basis of Indian social system : Verna, Ashram, Purusharatha, Caste, Joint family. The growth of Indian anthropology. Distinctiveness of anthropological contribution in the study to tribal and peasant sections of the Indian population. The basis concepts used Great tradition and little tradition. Sacred complex Universalization and parochialization, sanskritization and Westernization; Dominant caste. Tribe-caste continum, Nature-Man-Spirit complex. Ethnographic profiles of Indian tribes; racial linguistic and socio-economic characteristic. Problems of tribal peoples land alienation, indebtedness, lack of educational facilities, shifting cultivation, migration, forests and tribals unemployment agricultural labour. Special problems of hunting and food gathering and other minor tribes. The problems of culture contact; impact of urbanization and industrialization depopulation regionalism, economic and psychological frustrations. History of tribal administration. The constitutional; safeguards for the Scheduled Tribes, Policies, programmes of tribal development and their implementations. The response of the tribal people to the government measures for them. The different approaches to tribal problems. The role of anthropology in tribal development. The constitutional provisions regarding the scheduled caste. Social disabilities suffered by the scheduled castes and the socio economic problems faced by them. Issues relating to national integration.